The BA22-CE is a 32-bit processor for deeply embedded applications that use off-chip instruction and data memories and that may need to run a real-time operating system (RTOS). This processor core is extremely competitive in terms of high performance and low power consumption, and has best-in-class code density.
The core has Instruction and Data Caches, and an AMBA® AHB™, AXI4™, or Wishbone system bus interface. It is also equipped with dedicated Quick Memory (QMEM) interfaces to tightly-coupled memories, which offer fast and deterministic access to code and data, and can be used for inter-core communication in a multi-core architecture. Its base version includes 16 to 32 general-purpose registers (GPRs), a tick-timer (TTimer), a programmable interrupt controller (PIC), an advanced power management unit (PMU), and optionally a debug unit (DBGU). The core’s processing capabilities can be enhanced further with the optional hardware Multiply-Accumulate (MAC), IEEE 754 compliant floating-point, and DSP instructions acceleration units. Its interrupt response time can also be optimized with the addition of a Vectored Interrupt controller (VIC).
The BA22-CE supports the variable instruction length BA2 instruction set, benefits from its extreme code density, and is binary compatible with other members of the BA2x processor family. Programming is facilitated with the included C/C++ tool chain, Eclipse IDE, architectural simulator, and ported C libraries. Advanced debugging capabilities and off-the-shelf development boards can further ease software development.
At its minimum configuration, the BA22-CE core synthesizes to approximately 30k eq. gates (22,000 sq. um in a 28nm technology, excluding the SRAMs required for the caches). The processor core can be clocked at over 800MHz in 28nm and 16nm processes, and its performance is rated at 2.93 Coremarks/MHz.
Additional microcontroller peripherals may be ordered for pre-integration and delivery with the core, individually or in a complete platform. IP Integration Services are also available to help integrate the processor with memory controllers, image compression, or other CAST IP cores.
Part of the royalty-free BA2x family, the BA22-CE processor core has been designed for easy reuse and integration, has been rigorously verified, and is production proven.
- High Performance 32-bit CPU
- 2.93 CoreMarks/MHZ
- Single-cycle instruction execution on most instructions
- Fast and precise internal interrupt response
- Hardware Multiply Unit
- Optional hardware divide, multiply-accumulate, DSP instructions acceleration, and floating point units
- Low Power Consumption
- Industry-leading code density minimizes instruction memory area & power
- Small silicon footprint (from 22,000 sq. um in 28 nm, or 30K eq. gates) for lower leakage and dynamic power
- Fast & Flexible Memory Access
- Harvard-style, separate Instructions and Data caches
- Tightly coupled Quick Memory for fast and deterministic access to code and/or data
- Optional Memory Protection Unit
- Efficient Power Management
- Dynamic clock gating and power shut-off of unused units
- Software- and hardware-controlled clock frequency
- Wake-up on tick timer or external interrupt
- Advanced Debug Capability
- Non-intrusive debug/trace for both CPU and system
- Complex chained watchpoint and breakpoint conditions
- Standard JTAG and proprietary Two-Wire Debug interfaces
- Integrated Peripherals
- Base configuration includes a 32 bits-wide tick timer and a programmable interrupt controller
- Optionally pre-integrated with AMBA bus infrastructure, Vectored interrupt controller, DMAs, GPIOs, UARTS, Timers, SPI, I2C, memory controller and other IP cores from CAST.
- Easy Software Development
- Eclipse IDE for Windows & Linux
- C /C++ compiler, debugger, linker, assembler, and utilities
- Architectural simulator
- Ported libraries and RTOS
- The core is available for ASICs in synthesizable Verilog source code or for FPGAs in optimized netlists. It includes everything required for successful implementation: extensive documentation, a testbench, a sample SoC design, sample synthesis and simulation scripts, and the BeyondStudio™ Eclipse-based software development IDE for Windows and Linux.
- Reference designs on FPGA boards are also available; contact CAST Sales for information.
- Mixed signal embedded processing
- Portable and wireless
- Internet, networking and telecom
- Home entertainment consumer electronics
Block Diagram of the BA22 Cache-Enabled Embedded Processor IP Core